Austria

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labah Austria
Austria

Austria (奧地利) hya’ ga cyux maki’ tay 47 20 N, 13 20 E na Oco syuw.

kwara’ kinghciyan niya’ 83,871 sq km (maki’ tay 114 ginkgan kin wahci’)

(kinwhci’ niya’ ga 82,445 sq km, kinwhci’ na lawsayan wsilung hya’ ga 1,426 sq km)

Kinkhmayan kwara’ squliq hya’ ga 8,711,770.

Pinbcyan naha’ sni’ naha’ rhzyal hya’ iy pqmahun hya’ ga 38.40%, lhlahuy hya’ ga 47.20%, sni’ naha’ sa pptzyuwaw sa bzinah hya’ ga 14.40%.

spzyang qalang na Kokka’ (首都)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

Vienna

spzyang naha’ krahu’ qalang hya’ ga Vienna.

snyan kinramat inlungan na Kokka’ (國家紀念日)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

snyan kinramat inlungan na Kokka’ hya’ ga 26 na tay mawpuw byacing na qutux kawas.

mrhuw Kokka’ (國家元首)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

mrhuw Kokka’ ta’ misuw hya’ ga Alexander Van der Bellen, aring ryax tay 26 squ byacing tay 1 sa kawas 2017 lga, musa’ spazyang balay ms’rux kya la.

kkian (地理)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

Awtiri ga maki beh Oco na ska. rhyal siga wagiq tong ga rroq. A'pessan hnasun nya Awtiri. nanu yasa tehok qmisan lga san nha mslokah hi. rhyal rgyax maki 7% labang nya, syang na rgyax bhoboh tunux kwara. ska nya ga cecingyentayz (結晶地帶). wagiq na rgyax ga takloknasan (大格洛克納山), hayapa ga 3798 米. weyna ga penti. tongnan ru pepu ga cyuring (丘陵) ru wagiq na rgyax. Dongpepu ga Donaw (多瑙) llyung, qruyux nya ga 350 koli. hanbu crux mu'h (穆爾河) ru tlawah (德拉瓦河) situ ga crux inh ru sa'cah (薩爾察赫). Awitiri ga maki hrhul na hakyang ru hoyaq cikay kayal nya, qmisan lga rhyaq. 'bagan lga mkilux. Awtiri na hlahuy ga fukayri (覆蓋率) ga 46.7 pasento, qalang mani ga spiyang tama beh syang na Donawh (多瑙河) na weyna (維也納). spiyang na hogal ga crux sa'spaw (薩爾斯堡). inspuluk (因斯杜魯克), klac (格拉茲) rulic (林茲). hitocbo nya ga 838379 pinxwang (平方公尺) meta.

ggalan pila (經濟)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

Awitiri qani ga hoyaw balay ggalan pila. blaq balay qyanux squilq nha. yal qmayeh ru koba ga hoyaw kwara. spang nya balay ga kmalay kin, kikay, abura, lengki, kobana wazyang kbalay qhunq ru qsya;zyuwaw na pnqnyatan (畜牧業) ga cyux kaping bzyoq. qmayeh ga cuyx ramat, mubi, qetun, ngahi. ggalan pila ga ubuy Omong na koka. nanu tasa maras cingay balay pila ma. 2006 kawas Awtiri na GDP tongan 3.3%.

khmay na squilq (人口)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

kwara Awtiri qalang qani ga maki 92% na squilq, siki tehoq 1990 kawas nanslafu (南斯拉夫) na yaqeh squilq mwah tmwan Awtiri, hga ga bolopa (歐羅巴) na squilq. kruma 10% ga iyat Awtiri na squilq, kwara squilq aring syaw na squilq. tokubet To'o (東歐) na koka, maki qutux mang spat seng na Sloweniya (斯洛維尼亞). maki kntungpang ru Stiriya (斯蒂利亞) qalang. Oco ga cyugal qu rinhoyal. (Z'mat 日耳曼, Slafu 斯拉夫, lating 拉丁) Awtiri qalang qani ga lhuyal Z'mang (日耳曼) Almanni (阿勒曼尼), PaFariya (巴伐利亞), Flangk (法蘭克) msqun. Maca', syownu, Slafu ru Loma na 'tayal uzi. ke'ru gaga nha ga mtnaq cikay uzi, kya nanak gaga nha uzi.

hminas 74% na Awtiri squilq ga snhi cyorokay kwara 59.9% lga snhi Loma tengsukyo, 6% ga c'ng cyaw hey (正教會) 3.5% ga 新教路德宗, 4% lga binah na 新教, 6% ga islancyang (伊斯蘭教), Focyang (佛教), intucyaw (印度教), cingay balay itay (猶太) na squilq maki Awtiri, 1930 kawas yutay hminas mcilyaq mopuw mang squilq nya, suruw lga trang te sazing cinbwanan hrgi' xalan pyutan (減少). 1900 kawas thay kya halay (大約) 6,003,845 squilq nya la. suruw lga hbuyaw squilq la. 2017 kawas 3 byacing 14 ryax Awtiri na maki 8.598. 375 kwara squilq la.

ke’ (語言)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

Awtiri na mrhuw (官方) ga 德語 skatal nha, syaalmani (下阿勒曼尼) skatal nha, congpaFaliya (中巴伐利亞) skayal nha uzi. ke' na Awtiri ckaw 德語 skayal nha uzi. ke' na Awtiri ckaw 德語 skayal nha.

zywaw kinbkisan (歷史)[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

1683 kawas Hapuspawwang 朝 (哈布斯堡王朝) maki weyena (維也納) mciraq lga inipagan Oco (歐洲) Congsa glabang na 'tumang (鄂圖曼) 帝國. 'lwan bkisan, Awitiri maki sarçal giray maki squilq piyano pslyan. glen na Loma, cingay balay kay't (凱爾特) na squilq hlahuy qalang qani. suruw lga wal qolan Kay; t la.

Lomatiko ini agal lga Awtiri leng tehoq Syuw, lungpati (倫巴第人), Tongkt (東哥德人), Pafaliya (巴伐利亞人) ru Falank (法蘭克人) wal hga golan. Slafa (斯拉夫) mholuy musa beh A'pesti (阿爾卑斯地). qolan na Awtiri, ms'uruw kalantaniya (卡蘭塔尼亞) 王國. kongye 788 kawas caliman (查理曼) wal qolan, sklokah muya pinbahuw, mwah khmay cyorokay uzi. Cariman ru Balank talax la, Awtiri g muck Nanak maki Falank, maki galan qasa ga song nha "marchia Orientalis"東方邊疆領之意. mrhuw na Pafali mlahang qalang qani. 976 kawas maki beh Papnpaw na Liawpot ru mcilyaq Nanslafa ru Syuwyali mlahang rhyal qsu balay maki lalu nya Awtiri mani ga sbibu Nha beh 9964 kawas, trang mbibu Ostarrichi (東方邊疆領) ke' na 古德語 ma. 1156 kawas cipoq balay kneri nya Awtiri magan, 1192 kawas Pappaw (巴奔堡) na mrhuw wal galun Stayliya. 1246 kawas Awtiri ga mciyaq Fetle maki laytah wal mhoqeng la. Kpyut mciyaq (Papnpaw) la. Awtiri musa Posimiya na Mis' Awtoka na qbao lru 1278 kawas maki Pencyang (邊疆) mciyaq Congtoka ini agal Tic na Rukawfuis ru siki tehok te qutux cinbwanan mciyaq mosoq lga Awtiri lga galan nya Puspaw nasal qani kanhang, Hapuspaw cinngasal ga maki 14.15 seki mlahang slabang rhyal nha. 1526 kawas Awtiri wal nya galuw Posimiya ru 'mantu ini na Syuyari, sazing koka qani ga cingay balay moray nha. 1683 kawas qeru byacing mopuw sazing ryax na Weyena mciyaq cow Awtiri msqun Polan na hetay qryangan nya Weyena sazing byacing lga 'tuman ini maquh hetay qani. aring mciyaq qani ga hits nya ’tuman ru kura beh Oco 中西部 tonga slabang mshzi' bali msqun Hapuspaw wan caw maki Cowo na kenli, suluw lga mluw kwara hetay la. wayal 1699 kawas Ka'lofuci (卡爾洛夫奇) na keyak. Awtiri qalan nya Snsnlomatiko (神聖羅馬帝國) qalang nya. aring 1806 kawas lga Snsnlomatiko hoqeng lga Hopuspaw cinngasal ga mngaza S'lomatiko (神聖羅馬帝國) mouw Pulus, Awtiri taling mluw Pulis bsyaq balay kaw nya squn mna Tici kngli mcicyaq trang Awtiri tema mluw tnaqan Topulus ru 'los (俄羅斯) pin sazing sanka ru kwabu kengli ru mcilyaq, msqun kwara Awtiri ru Pulus 'los te sazing saka Kwah'polon (瓜分芬蘭) tequtux ru tecyugal.

1806 kawas S'lomatiko sgayal, aniyasa lga sazing kawas myan, Fulacs Ps's'lomatiko shuti hwanti kmayal nanak muci hya ga Awtiriri na mrhuw ma. knahal ga i Awtiri spiyang qska qalang ga Hpuspow. 1867 kawas thzyazi Awtiri maki Puaw mcilyaq, leqaw nya kablar zyaw qani. pkayal muck Awtiri ga Kongcupang (共主邦聯) Awsyutiko mrhuw na Awsyugtiko maki Nanak ihwe ru haykuang nha, masoq mcilyaq lga ini maqux Awsyutiko qsugun nya cipoq balay na koka', Laytaniya lga mluw Awtiri la. (aring 1918 kawas mopuw byacing pusalqutux ryax tehoq 1919 kawas qeru byacing pusalqutux ryax) Mpusalqutux byacing song nha TicAwtiri (德意志奧地利), shtuy nha Tko ru Wemakonghko (魏瑪共和國) msqun. 1938 kawas nacuetko ru Taw msqun la. mosoq mcilyaq lga, Awtiri ga knahang pitu kawas na gikang.

1945 kawas ini maqux Nacuetka qani, Awtiri myup knahang Mongclung (盟軍), siki tehoq 1955 kawas Awtiri koka smunan (為止). maki Awtiri kmayal muci si bsyaq sa kaki kya ma. sqolan Awtiri tongmong hetay rgit shryaq. Awtiri tehoq suruw lga magal nanak ru misuw lga tesazing na Kowhko (共和國) ma. 1989 kawas, TongO Kowsantang (共產黨) teng ri lga spayang la, Awtiri gyut sang ka Oco msqun. 1995 kawas tmwang sanka Omong, ru 1999 kawas temong Oyalci (歐元區).

政治 (sezi')[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]

tsotow (總統) na Awtiri ga hopa' balay na mrhuw. may mtzyu kawas lga saring kwara squilq sengkyo. spyang ga sotow maya lalu, Congri (總理) spang hopa na mrhuw. Awtiri ga sazing na linhoyan, qutux ga tzyul pgal payat na squilq rayhyo surux na Rengpangyal (聯邦院) ru 183 na squilq sengkya na iyeng na Kominyel. Kominyel (國民院) spyang na cyogung ga msi horik, msati giqas na sehuw sangka mlahuy.

magal ini snhi Rangpang sehuw ru squilq. Rangpang rayhyo qpzing na mrhuw, galun nya maki kengri nya kominyng wal nya galun gaga ru sbinah (駁回) nya lozi. lgan nha (如果) kominyen sprang na gaga, lengpangyen lga ungat ska syahaw 'zing na mincutang (民進黨) ru ska syahaw 'law na z'mintang (人民黨). bsyaq balay thozyay surux beh sehu, nanu yasa ga Ocona koka msqun sehu ma. maki sipngan nanak na te qutux hopa cyux tama tzyung kawas Congri, 1999 kawas sengkyo, 'law mincwecui na ziyu te sazing na tang, nanu yasa ga Z'mintang mops ru mouw 社民黨 bsyaq na msqun sehu. mluw Zyutang (自由黨) mosque Yoireng Mong (右翼聯盟). maki Awtiri koka mani ga hopa balay qyaqeh nha. koka qani ga ini aw kwara inlungan ha, squilq; Omong (歐盟) maki ginas na kinpuyan Awtiri binas na qalang. trang Zyutang (自由黨) qyaqeh thazi, qeru byacing la wal lahan Omong la, yasa wal nzyut balq pin'buzyan (關係) la.

2002 kawas qeru byacing, nyux is maki sazing na 政策 ru gmleng na msang trang mpuw qutux byacing magal mrhuw yasa thoyay han qalang nha. wal nya galun 79席 ru 42.3% na kipu. magal te hopa balay na mrhuw, Ziyutang lga wal hotang kipu nya 18 席 balay. 10. 1% nanak kipu nya. maki 2006 kawas mpuw byacing qutux ryax na sengkyo ga, S'mintang yoway magal, trang sehuw na mrhuw. taring magal sehu' na kengri kbalay ziqas na "大聯合政府". trang ana maki sengkyo ga 中社民黨 ru 人民黨 ga cipok balay kipu nya. 社民黨 hya ga mhotaw ru ini tehoq 30%, mopuw qutux hlahuy wal hotaw kipu nya, wal maqux 3.3 個百分點 wal nya hnasun 人民黨 kipu. zihung pkayal lga, tehoq suruw mopuw sazing byacing sazing ryax taring kmalay surux klabang "大聯合政府", we’na Faimang blaq nha ziqas na mrhuw.

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’[smr’zyut miru’ | Smr’zyut miru’ Yuensma’]